Published : 2022/11/10 at 5:11 pm

A significant global public health issue is the pandemic of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. A life-saving treatment for those with human immunodeficiency is antiretroviral therapy (ART). Patients who are satisfied are more likely to adhere to their treatment regimen, which is linked to improved clinical results.

Antiretroviral Therapy Service

To enhance health results, it is necessary to provide people living with the disease with high-quality HIV/AIDS care and antiretroviral drugs. Public health concerns have emerged regarding the quality of medical services.

Antiretroviral therapy

Medical professionals developed antiretroviral treatment in 1996, Because patients who were using only one HIV medicine at a time had such low success rates. A diagnosis with a very poor result was transformed into a treatable health condition with the use of three antiretroviral medications.

Recently, two-drug regimens for HIV treatment received approval from health authorities. There are two ways that antiretroviral therapy impacts the body. In the beginning, it boosts the body’s immune cell count. Additionally, it reduces the quantity of viral cells.

These drugs help in maintaining health and avoiding additional infections. HIV does not spread to other people when a patient is receiving good antiretroviral medication.

What are the 3 antiretroviral therapies?

Currently, the recommended course of therapy for HIV infection involves taking three or more antiretroviral medications, also referred to as an anti-HIV “cocktail.” The best way to stop HIV from spreading is currently provided by this treatment, allowing your immune system to remain strong. Antiretroviral therapy aims to lower your body’s viral load to a point where it can no longer be identified by routine blood testing.

Followings are seven classes of HIV drugs-

  • non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)
  • nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)
  • post-attachment inhibitors
  • protease inhibitors (PIs)
  • CCR5 antagonists
  • integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs)
  • fusion inhibitors

Initial antiretroviral therapy regimens often consist of two NRTIs plus a third antiretroviral medication that is active and may belong to the INSTI, NNRTI, or PI class. Sometimes they may also contain a booster, such as cobicistat (Tybost) or ritonavir (Norvir). Adults and adolescents with HIV typically begin antiretroviral medication with one of the following regimens:

tenofovir/emtricitabine (Truvada) dolutegravir, emtricitabine or lamivudine, dolutegravir or tenofovir alafenamide or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate dolutegravir/lamivudine, and bictegravir/tenofovir alafenamide/emtricitabine (Biktarvy) dolutegravir

While the combinations are usual, a doctor’s prescription will vary depending on several variables, including if the patient is pregnant.

Many antiretroviral medications have received FDA approval to treat HIV infection. Because they function in various ways, they are frequently divided into six groups. At least two of them should be combined or taken as a “cocktail,” according to doctors. Antiretroviral therapy, or ART, is what is used for this.

You will receive precise instructions from your doctor on how to take your meds. You must strictly adhere to the instructions and must never skip a dose. If you skip doses, your medicine may stop functioning and you risk developing drug-resistant strains of HIV.

Side Effects

HIV drugs used to have a lot more adverse effects than they do today. Additionally, even while some people may experience adverse effects with existing treatments, overall, the advantages greatly exceed the dangers.

Most side effects last only for some time. which include:

  • nausea
  • fatigue
  • trouble sleeping

Some HIV drugs, however, can have negative effects that take months or years to manifest. High cholesterol is one illustration; it is a risk factor for heart disease.

The risk of side effects may be higher for people who take other medications or have additional medical issues. It is significant to remember that a wide range of different medications, including:

  • antihistamines
  • inhaled asthma medications
  • indigestion medications
  • statins
  • erectile dysfunction medications
  • herbal and alternative treatments, like St. John’s wort

It is essential for patients to inform their doctors about any additional therapies or dietary supplements they use in order to avoid potentially hazardous interactions and ensure that medications are successful.

When to start antiretroviral treatment?

Even if it has been a while since the diagnosis and the patient is still healthy, it is crucial to start the treatment as soon as feasible. HIV can weaken the immune system and progress to AIDS if not treated.

Antiretroviral medication can help an HIV patient live a full, healthy life if they take it as prescribed.

What if someone delay his/her HIV treatment

HIV will continue to damage your immune system if patients delay the therapy. Delay in HIV treatment increases the risk of getting sick, contracting HIV from partners, and having AIDS.

Benefits of taking HIV treatment as prescribed

  • Maintaining a low viral load can be achieved by taking your HIV medication as directed.
  • The viral load can get quite low with HIV treatment (viral suppression).
  • Treatment for HIV can reduce the viral load to a point where a test cannot detect it (undetectable viral load).
  • Once you begin HIV treatment, if your viral load decreases, the medication is functioning. Keep taking your HIV medication as directed.
  • Even occasionally skipping a dose of HIV medication gives the virus a chance to spread quickly. Your immune system can be compromised as a result, and you might get sick.
  • The greatest method to stay healthy and defend others is to achieve and maintain a viral load that cannot be detected (or to maintain viral suppression).
  • You cannot transmit HIV through intercourse if your viral load is undetectable.
  • We don’t know how much having an undetectable viral load lowers the risk of HIV transmission through sharing needles, syringes, or other injecting supplies (such cookers).


HIV treatment known as antiretroviral therapy uses two or more medications. Although it does not treat the illness, it can lower the body’s viral load to undetectable levels. The infection is currently unable to spread to other people.

Additionally strengthening the immune system, this medication lessens the likelihood that HIV may spread. Sai Infertility centre provides best ART services in UP. Visit us to get world class services.